Feeding quality of pea for poultry

Ulrich Quendt
Posted: 20.04.2021
This note gives an overview of the components and feed value of field pea. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is rich in protein and energy. Pea complements cereal in the feed ration because of the high content of lysine. The feed value of pea for poultry is determined by the metabolisable energy for poultry and the digestibility of the amino acids. Depending on the animal type and rearing phase, white-flowering, light-coloured pea can be used for poultry up to 30% of the feed compound mixture. The feeding value must be determined for each batch of pea so that the use can be targeted. Field pea can be sold to compound feed producers. But on-farm use gives a better return than can be achieved when sold to the market. Home-grown grain legumes are an important component of GMO-free feed rations.
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Laying hens

 

Nutritional components

Pea is used in livestock feed primarily because of its protein content. The dry matter is about 24% protein and also contains energy-rich ingredients such as starch, oil and sugar (Table 1). The nutrient contents vary depending on growing conditions and cultivar. The quality of the protein is determined by the amino acid profile which in turn is determined largely by the cultivar (variety). Pea is rich in lysine, but relatively poor in methionine and cysteine (Table 1). The limiting factor for the use of pea in poultry rations is the low methionine content. The digestibility of the amino acids is good. The mineral content is similar to that of cereals. Pea contains less phosphorus than soy and rapeseed extraction meal. The phosphorus is partly bound to phytin, which reduces uptake. The addition of phytase reduces this problem.

 

 

Anti-nutritional factors

Pea may contain anti-nutritional components such as tannin, protease inhibitors, lectins and saponins. These can affect digestion and animal health. Harmful levels of tannins are only found in purple-flowering pea that has a dark seed hull (seed coat). The bitter taste reduces feed intake. Most commercial cultivars are white-flowering, have a light-coloured seed hull and therefore, contain little tannin. A reduced digestibility of crude protein and enzyme binding due to tannins only plays a role with high inclusion rates of purple-flowering pea. Other anti-nutritional ingredients such as protease inhibitors, lectins and saponins are only present in small amounts in pea, which do not have a negative effect at the amounts listed below.

 

Turkeys

 

Feed value

The protein feed value depends largely on the amount of protein and the nutritional quality of the protein and the energy feed value resulting from the digestibility of the nutrients. Protein quality in poultry nutrition is characterised by the contents of the essential amino acids. These are lysine, methionine and cysteine, threonine and tryptophan. The digestibility of the amino acids is also important. This varies both between amino acids and between different grain legumes (Table 2).

 

 

Maximum inclusion rates of pea in poultry feed

The quantities used depend on age and performance phase (Table 3).

Depending on the other components in the feed, the use of peas can reduce the proportion of anti-nutritional substances in the total ration, e.g. non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) from oil cakes.

 

 

Further Information

Bellof, G., Halle, I., Rodehutscord, M., 2016. Ackerbohnen, Futtererbsen und Blaue Süßlupinen in der Geflügelfütterung. UFOP-Praxisinformation.

Jeroch, H., Lipiec, A., Abel, H., Zentek, J., Grela, E., Bellof, G., 2016. Körnerleguminosen als Futter- und Nahrungsmittel. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt.

Losand, B., Pries, M., Steingaß, H., and Bellof, G., 2020. Ackerbohnen, Körnerfuttererbsen, Süßlupinen und Sojabohnen in der Rinderfütterung. UFOP-Praxisinformation. www.ufop.de/medien/downloads/agrar-info/praxisinformationen/tierernaehrung

Demonstrationsnetzwerk Erbse/Bohne, website: www.demoneterbo.agrarpraxisforschung.de

Feedipedia. Animal feed resources information system, website: www.feedipedia.org

  • Landesbetrieb Landwirtschaft Hessen (LLH)
  • 2021
  • This note gives an overview of the components and feed value of field pea. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is rich in protein and energy. Pea complements cereal in the feed ration because of the high content of lysine. The feed value of pea for poultry is determined by the metabolisable energy for poultry and the digestibility of the amino acids. Depending on the animal type and rearing phase, white-flowering, light-coloured pea can be used for poultry up to 30% of the feed compound mixture. The feeding value must be determined for each batch of pea so that the use can be targeted. Field pea can be sold to compound feed producers. But on-farm use gives a better return than can be achieved when sold to the market. Home-grown grain legumes are an important component of GMO-free feed rations.

  • csm_Huehner_Fuetterung_1_WVK_4f6c5862e8-0b76352b
    csm_Huehner_Fuetterung_1_WVK_4f6c5862e8-0b76352b
    Laying hens
    Photograph: Werner Vogt-Kaute
  • Bellof, G., Halle, I., Rodehutscord, M., 2016. Ackerbohnen, Futtererbsen und Blaue Süßlupinen in der Geflügelfütterung. UFOP-Praxisinformation.

    Bellof, G., Aulrich, K. and Weiß, J., 2013. Körnerleguminosen in der Fütterung. Kuratorium für Technik, Bauwesen und Landwirtschaft, KTBL-Heft 100.

    Jeroch, H., Lipiec, A., Abel, H., Zentek, J., Grela, E., Bellof, G., 2016. Körnerleguminosen als Futter- und Nahrungsmittel. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt.

    Vogt-Kaute, W., 2016. Fütterung von Geflügel mit Ackerbohnen. Demonstrationsnetzwerk Erbse/Bohne. http://www.demoneterbo.agrarpraxisforschung.de/index.php?id=116

    Weindl, P., Bellof, G., 2016. Einsatz regionaler Eiweißfuttermittel als Ersatz für importiertes Sojaextraktionsschrot. Feed Magazine, Kraftfutter, 3-4.


  • PN10 Table 1
    Table 1. Nutritional components of faba bean and pea compared to soybean meal

  • PN10 Table 2
    Table 2. Digestibility of selected amino acids in pea, faba bean and soybean meal

  • PN10 Table 3
    Table 3. Inclusion rate of peas as affected by animal and pea type

  • Turkeys-Werner-Vogt-Kaute-2016_more contrast
    Turkeys
    Photograph: Werner Vogt-Kaute
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    Ulrich Quendt
    Feeding quality of pea for poultry
  • Ulrich Quendt, 2021. Feeding quality of pea for poultry. Legume Hub. https://www.legumehub.eu

  • Quendt, U., 2021. Feeding quality of pea for poultry. Legume Hub. https://www.legumehub.eu

References

Bellof, G., Halle, I., Rodehutscord, M., 2016. Ackerbohnen, Futtererbsen und Blaue Süßlupinen in der Geflügelfütterung. UFOP-Praxisinformation.

Bellof, G., Aulrich, K. and Weiß, J., 2013. Körnerleguminosen in der Fütterung. Kuratorium für Technik, Bauwesen und Landwirtschaft, KTBL-Heft 100.

Jeroch, H., Lipiec, A., Abel, H., Zentek, J., Grela, E., Bellof, G., 2016. Körnerleguminosen als Futter- und Nahrungsmittel. DLG-Verlag, Frankfurt.

Vogt-Kaute, W., 2016. Fütterung von Geflügel mit Ackerbohnen. Demonstrationsnetzwerk Erbse/Bohne. www.demoneterbo.agrarpraxisforschung.de/index.php?id=116

Weindl, P., Bellof, G., 2016. Einsatz regionaler Eiweißfuttermittel als Ersatz für importiertes Sojaextraktionsschrot. Feed Magazine, Kraftfutter, 3-4.

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Images

  • Laying hensPhotograph: Werner Vogt-Kaute
  • Table 1. Nutritional components of faba bean and pea compared to soybean meal
  • Table 2. Digestibility of selected amino acids in pea, faba bean and soybean meal
  • Table 3. Inclusion rate of peas as affected by animal and pea type
  • TurkeysPhotograph: Werner Vogt-Kaute

About this article

Authors: Ulrich Quendt
Publisher: Landesbetrieb Landwirtschaft Hessen (LLH)

Copyright: © All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination for non-commercial purposes are authorised provided the source is fully acknowledged.

Acknowledgement: Legumes Translated has received funding from the European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innnovation programme under grant agreement No. 817634.
Citation: Quendt, U., 2021. Feeding quality of pea for poultry. Legume Hub. www.legumehub.eu

The content is solely the responsibility of the authors. No warranties, expressed or implied, are made with respect to the information provided. Information relating to the use of plant protection products (pesticides) must be checked against the product label or other sources of product registration information.

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