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      Feeding quality of faba bean for poultry

      This practice note provides an overview of the components and feed value of faba bean. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), also called field bean, is rich in protein and energy. The high content of lysine means faba bean complements cereals in feed. Faba bean can replace or supplement soy. The feed value of faba bean for poultry is determined by the metabolisa...

      Flexible cutterbars

      Technology and market overview
      Flexible cutting technology has been tried and tested for years and is fully developed. There is no doubt that the investment pays off quickly for medium and large soybean areas. This is particularly true in organic farming, where the soy price is up to three times higher than for conventional soy. It is to be hoped that contractors in soybean regions will i...

      Bugs in soybeans

      At present, despite regional significant infestation, bugs do not cause serious damage in soybeans in Germany. Studies on the actual damage caused are missing. Also, in climatically comparable Ontario, where the two invasive species described above have been common for some time, the damage to soy is limited. According to information from local practitioners...

      Intercropping of grain pea with cereals

      Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a valuable crop species containing around 20% crude protein in the seed. Cultivated as a pure crop, pea is prone to lodging and susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. This is especially the case for the taller cultivars often used for forage. This leads to diminished crop performance and inf...

      Faba bean, grain pea, sweet lupin and soybean in poultry feeds

      Grain legumes have long been considered valuable crops in agriculture. In addition to providing a break in cereal-based crop rotations, they make an important contribution to the regenerative N supply in arable farming through their ability to fix nitrogen with the help of nodule bacteria. Pea, faba bean, sweet lupin and also soybean from domestic cultivatio...

      Soybean processing systems

      Soybeans contain anti-nutritive substances that need to be processed before the beans can be fed to livestock. The application of relevant and compact processing technology for farms or for small enterprises requires special knowledge, and practical experience is not widespread. The factsheet presents the most common technologies available or used in Central...

      Growing spring-sown pea in south-east Europe

      Favorable climatic conditions and suitable soils support the cultivation of grain pea for livestock feed in south-east Europe. Grain pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum L.) is very plastic. This means it adjusts to conditions while growing. It is able to enrich the soil with nitrogen, which makes the crop attractive to farmers. Pea provides a valuable p...

      Growing lucerne in cool climates

      This note supports strategies for effective lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) production in cool regions. While it is particularly based on experience gained in environments normally regarded as marginal for lucerne production, it is relevant to all lucerne-growing situations. The aim is maximisation of crop yield and forage quality.

      Southern green shield bug in soybean

      Shield bugs (species of the superfamily Pentatomoidea) are important insect pests in soybean production worldwide. They are also known as stink bugs because they have glands that excrete a strong odour. Two bugs have become more common in recent years in Europe: the southern green shield bug (Nezara viridula) and the...

      Lucerne in north-western Europe

      Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) can be fed to dairy, beef cattle and sheep as part of the protein forage component of their ration. Based on Scottish research, this note provides guidance on identifying site and climate combinations where the production of lucerne can be viable in north-western Europe. The experience f...

      The painted lady in soybean production

      Soybean pest scouting
      The painted lady (Vanessa cardui L.) is a pest of soybean in Serbia and many countries in south-eastern Europe (Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria). It occurs also in central, western and northern Europe (Austria, France, Germany). This pest appears occasionally, typically once in four to five years, when it can be of economic importance. It ...

      Sampling and measurement protocols for field experiments assessing the performance of legume-supported cropping systems

      This report sets out the protocols for field measurements which were used throughout the Legume Futures research project. In some cases, more than one method is described. This is because the best method to use may be defined by the site characteristics, and also by the availability of staff, instrumentation and financial resources. This guide does not seek ...

      Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

      This report is part of the socio-economic research in the Legume Futures project which aimed to assess the economic effect of including legumes in farming systems both in relation to the internal (economic) effects for the farmer and the external effects, especially on the environment. The objective of the research reported is to show what impact various po...

      GHG mitigation costs through legume based agriculture

      The aim of the research reported here was to assess regional greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential due to changing rotations at farm-scale. Rotation data generated for the research reported In Legume Futures report 4.2 from Task 4.2 were used, complemented with nitrous-oxide (N2O) emissions calculations. This research assessed the GHG abatement...

      Social cost-benefit analysis of legumes in cropping-systems

      This report is part of the socio-economic research in Legume Futures which aimed to assess the economic effect of including legumes in farming systems both in relation to the internal (economic) effects for the farmer and the external effects, especially on the environment. It builds on Legume Futures Report 4.5 (Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios). ...

      Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe

      General project report
      Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) was an international research project funded from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement number 245216. The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partner organisations in 13 countries.
      This general repo...

      Evaluation of legume-supported agriculture and policies at farm level

      Despite their environmental benefits the cultivation of legumes in Europe declined and is now less than 2% of the arable land in the EU. The reasons are on the one hand the high import of cheap soya for animal feeding and on the other hand the low profitability of legumes compared to other crops such as rape seed and wheat1. Reasons of the low profitability ...

      Generation and evaluation of legume-supported crop rotations in five case study regions across Europe

      This report is concerned with the socio-economic aspects of legume cultivation. One of the key instruments of modern cropping system design is the development of agronomically and economically highly efficient and environmental sound crop rotations. In our first project meetings we agreed to restrict the project works to conventional farming in order to limi...

      Agronomic case studies in Legume Futures

      Legume Futures, "Legume-supported crop rotations for Europe", is an international research project funded under the European FP7 programme. It has 20 partners in 13 countries. The project aims to develop and assess legume-supported cropping systems that improve the economic and environmental performance of farming in Europe.
      The project aims to make ...

      Novel feed and non-food uses of legumes

      Legumes are, compared with cereals, rich in a range of secondary plant compounds. Legumes have evolved mechanisms to produce and concentrate these compounds to protect against pest and disease attack. The bioactivity of these compounds opens up non-food opportunities which are specific to legumes. This report also looks at non-traditional feed uses, such ...

      Agronomic analysis of cropping strategies

      Legume crops have a number of environmental effects in rotation, but farmers and agronomists need assistance with understanding the possibilities for incorporating them into arable and forage rotations and assessing the financial risks and benefits of doing so. This report focuses on the evaluation of the agronomy of legume-based crop rotations and the feasi...

      Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legume crops in Europe

      The amount of N fixed by forage legumes and legume-grass systems was predicted by a combination of outputs from the CAPRI model and improved, country-specific N fixation coefficients. For grain legumes, the higher quality of available data made it possible to construct a detailed model based on N partitioning. Both approaches predicted quantities of N fixe...

      The market of grain legumes in the EU

      This report presents a focus on the market analysis of legumes in the EU. In this report, current and historical data obtained from different statistical databases are used for a basic quantitative description of EU‐legume markets. Indicators used include cultivated areas, yields, production volumes, domestic consumption, imports and exports. Expert knowledg...

      The market of grain legumes in Spain

      Results of the EU-project LegValue
      Spain is one of the most important EU-countries producing and consuming legumes. Both grain legumes and fodder legumes are well represented, with Spain being the first producer of fodder legumes in the EU. Legumes can fix nitrogen from the air thanks to their rhizobia. In addition, they serve to loosen up crop rotation, which is an advantage from a phytosani...

      The market of legumes in Italy

      First results of the EU-project LegValue
      Italy is one of the biggest producer of legumes in Europe due to its highest production of soya beans. Even though soya bean is worldwide classified as oil crop, botanically it belongs to legume species. Beside soya, fresh beans, faba beans and fresh peas are the main produced grain legumes in Italy. Italy is the leader in production of fodder legumes in Eu...

      The market of grain legumes in the UK

      First results of the EU-project LegValue
      Legumes play an important role in animal and human nutrition. Depending on the crops, some of them are mainly used for feed or food. In addition, their cultivation has many benefits in crop rotation and preserves biodiversity. However, they remain as niche in comparison to cereals. In the UK some specific aspects about legume production and marketing have to...

      The market of grain legumes in Germany

      First results of the EU-project LegValue
      The production of domestic legumes can constitute a more sustainable protein source in feeding troughs and food plates in European countries. However, it remains a challenge to realize legumes’ potential in research and practice. In this work, Germany serves as an example to describe one of the major legume markets in Europe. A mixed methodological approach ...

      Unit values in international trade as price indicators of legumes in the EU

      Unit values might become an interesting price indicator to better valorise EU produced legumes. To ensure a sustainable use of unit values as price indicators, the choice of the indicator (EUV or IUV) is decisive. The higher the transaction volume in a specific period, the more stable are the corresponding unit values over longer time periods. Therefore, the...

      Correlation between prices of grain legumes and prices of feed, fertilisers and meat

      The prices of the three groups of variables studied can be used as indicators in the pricing of legumes. It should be noted that the prices of animal feed and meat are better suited to this than the prices of mineral fertilisers. Since the correlation analysis does not allow a statement on causality, open questions remain for an in-depth time series analysis...

      Prospective cultivation area of field peas used in animal meat substitutes in the EU

      Meat alternatives from leguminous raw materials are expected to play an increasing role in human nutrition. Additional global cultivation areas and additional general cultivation potential for peas as raw material for meat substitutes are projected to increase. The aim of the present study is to estimate the prospective area of peas for pea-based meat altern...

      Cultivation of faba beans for regional protein supply: a case study on the association “Rheinische Ackerbohne e.V.” in Germany

      Faba beans have been an important component in human and animal nutrition in many parts of the world for long periods of time. Soybean imports from overseas have been displacing domestic protein crops in Europe since the 1950s. Although the cultivation of faba beans entails different eco-system services, they are rarely cultivated due to their low market per...

      Report on price setting mechanism in legume markets in the EU

      This report presents a focus on the market analysis of legumes in the EU. In this report, current and historical data obtained from different statistical databases are used for a basic quantitative description of EU‐legume markets. Indicators used include cultivated areas, yields, production volumes, domestic consumption, imports and exports. Expert knowledg...

      Increase of legume production as an alternative protein source for animal feed in a livestock-intensive region

      Protein is of vital importance for the nutrition of animals and humans. A growing world population is dependent on the efficient supply of proteins. It is also dependent on sustainable production of proteins since environmental impacts associated with animal-based protein provision are widely perceived as surpassing ecological boundaries in the long run. Con...

      Effects of legume cropping on farming and food systems

      The analyses show that legumes are not a silver bullet, but a key component for a wider shift in agricultural production and consumption that reduce environmental impacts. They reduce environmental impacts of crop and animal production, but to achieve high reductions, further optimisations of livestock systems with respect to environmental impacts are requir...

      Environmental implications for legume cropping

      The loss of nutrients from agricultural systems is recognised as a major environmental problem, contributing to air pollution and nutrient enrichment in rivers and oceans. The use of legumes within agriculture provides an opportunity to reduce some of these impacts in ways which maintain or enhance productivity. Nitrous oxide emissions are particularly impor...

      Outlook for knowledge and technology for legume-supported cropping systems

      Based partly on the results of intensive stakeholder engagement activities within the Legume Futures project and on review of the literature, this report sets out thoughts from the Legume Futures consortium on the challenges of increasing the production of legume crops in Europe and the potential approaches to research and development that might be taken. ...

      Developing legume cropping: looking forward

      Europe is self-sufficient in most agricultural commodities that it can produce. It is even a net exporter of cereals. This remarkable productivity can be attributed to specialization in high yielding cereals and oilseeds supported by synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and large imports of soy from North and South America. However, this productivity comes at a cos...

      Optimizing legume cropping: the policy questions

      The cultivation of legumes is low in Europe. Public policy incentives and/or regulations have a role to play in changing this. This chapter examines six such policies. The CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact) model, a partial equilibrium model for the agricultural sector, is used to simulate the effects of these policies and compare them to wha...

      Introducing legumes into European cropping systems: farm-level economic effects

      Legume cultivation in Europe has declined in recent decades due to decreased farm-level economic competitiveness compared with cereal and oil crop production. The increase in soybean prices in recent years and the public benefits expected from diversified production systems are reasons to reconsider legumes in Europe. Farm-level economic assessments, based o...

      Mixtures of legumes for forage production

      In Europe, legumes are mostly grown as single species or in mixtures with cereals or grasses. As an alternative cropping strategy, mixtures of legumes for forage have been developed in Serbia. This novel approach can be applied in many other temperate regions of Europe. This chapter provides an overview of these cropping systems, their use and their developm...

      Lucerne (Alfalfa) in European cropping systems

      Chapter 11 from 'Legumes in Cropping Systems' reviews knowledge on the agronomy, genetics, feeding value and harvesting methods used for lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa), which is the temperate climate legume species with the highest protein yield. It has agronomic advantages (high forage production, adequate persistency and drought tolerance) ...

      Red clover in cropping systems

      Red clover has played an important role as a supplier of reactive nitrogen to cropping systems in European agriculture for hundreds of years. Today, it is mostly valued for its good nutritional properties for ruminants, and for reducing the need for nitrogen fertilizer inputs. Red clover is a short-lived perennial capable of producing dry matter yields in th...

      Legume-based green manure crops

      Legume-based green manures (LGMs) are crops that are grown with the specific purpose of improving soil quality and consequently the long-term productivity of crops. Although the traditional focus has been on the supply of nitrogen (N) to the system, they have a wide range of potential benefits that include improving soil quality, reducing soil erosion and in...

      Developing soy production in Central and Northern Europe

      The soybean is an important ingredient of livestock feed in Europe and is also widely used in foods. Most soy used in Europe is imported (about 97% as beans and meal), mainly from South America and the USA. European soy production is currently concentrated in the south (Italy) and south-east (Balkan countries). Based on research conducted in Sweden and Germa...

      Lupins in European cropping systems

      The lupins are an interesting group of legume crop species that produce large seeds containing up to 40% protein. The genus Lupinus is part of the tribe Genisteae. More than 170 species have been described from the New World and only 12 species from Europe, North and East Africa. Wild lupins are bitter and toxic because they produce quinolizidine alkaloids a...

      Grain legumes: an overview

      The grain legumes are important sources of protein in animal and human diets. This article provides an overview of some basic aspects of their biology and production in Europe. All early agricultural societies apparently domesticated a grain legume at much the same time as a cereal, perhaps indicating that their nutritional value was noticed. The cool-season...

      Legume crops and biodiversity

      Modern intensive cropping systems rely on simple cropping sequences, mineral fertilizers and chemical crop protection. This has led to a reduction of crop diversity, simplified landscapes and declines in biodiversity. However, even today in intensive farming systems, legume-supported cropping has the potential to deliver many ecosystem services, both directl...

      Nitrogen and phosphorus losses from legume-supported cropping

      The loss of nutrients from agricultural systems is recognized as a major environmental problem, contributing to air pollution and nutrient enrichment in rivers and oceans. The use of legumes within agriculture provides an opportunity to reduce some of these losses in ways which maintain or enhance agricultural productivity. This chapter considers the role of...

      The role of legumes in bringing protein to the table

      This chapter examines the role of legumes in the provision of nitrogen and protein in the European food system. It follows the nitrogen cycle starting with a description of biological functioning of ecosystems. From this, it describes the role of legumes in supplying protein for food and feed from this reactive nitrogen. A detailed account of sources and use...

      Perspectives on legume production and use in European agriculture

      Grain legumes currently cover less than 2% of European arable area, and estimates of forage legume coverage are little greater. Imported legume protein, however, is an important livestock feed additive. This article introduces the varied roles of legumes in cropping systems and in food and feed value chains.

      White clover supported pasture-based systems in North-West Europe

      White clover (WC) (Trifolium repens L.) is a useful component of European grasslands due to: (i) its capacity to convert dinitrogen (N2) gas to plant-available nitrogen (N) in the soil via biological nitrogen fixation (BNF); (ii) its tolerance of grazing; and (iii) its high nutritive value for ruminant livestock. Its relative importance has...

      Storage of soybeans

      Soybean for seed does not store well. This is mainly because the seed coat (or shell) of soybean is fragile. However, there are differences between the varieties, but good soy storage begins with the upstream processes, where everything must be done to avoid seed coat damage.

      Soybean mosaic virus

      Soybean mosaic virus is a globally distributed virus that can cause yield loss, reduced seed quality, and reduced nodulation in soybeans. The symptoms on infested plants range from no visible symptoms to severely deformed plants and spotted seeds. The most effective measure to avoid infestation is the use of seeds that are as virus-free as possible. In addit...

      Soaktest for soybean seed

      A simple means of quality control - from seed harvest to sowing
      The soaktest is an interesting means of quickly and easily checking the suitability of equipment and equipment settings for processing soybeans. It is hoped that the test will establish itself among domestic soybean seed producers and producers of quality soybeans for the food industry in order to avoid unnecessary quality losses in the future, especially du...

      Gravity spiral separators for cleaning soybeans

      Many years of use with professional soybean processors show that gravity spiral separators can be used as a supplement to conventional cleaning devices. Especially when it is necessary to separate straw, hulls, sclerotia, maize or broken grain from otherwise completely cleaned beans without much effort and without damaging the grain, the machine can do a goo...

      Expensive soy – these are the alternatives for feeding pigs

      Soybean meal is still the No. 1 protein-rich ingredient for animal feed, but prices have been rising for months, and experts expect further increases. This Legumes Translated Special Report 1 is based on a translation of an article written by Manfred Weber and published in the German agricultural journal top agrar.

      Sowing time for soybean

      Timely sowing is important for successful soybean production. Timely sowing gives the best combination of cultivar, the length of daylight (latitude and calendar date), and soil temperature and moisture at planting depth. This enables rapid development and growth of young plants before floral induction, providing the foundatio...

      Feeding quality of pea for poultry

      This note gives an overview of the components and feed value of field pea. Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is rich in protein and energy. Pea complements cereal in the feed ration because of the high content of lysine. The feed value of pea for poultry is determined by the metabolisable energy for poultry and the digestibility of the amino acids. Depending o...

      Cultivation of white lupin

      A cool-season and environmentally friendly protein crop
      White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a different botanical species to narrow-leaved or „blue“ lupin (Lupinus angustifolius). It tolerates heavier soil and has a higher yield potential, but does not ripen until August/September. Important cultivation practices include the use of healthy, certified seed, sowing as early as possible and using the right ...

      Establishing high-yielding faba bean

      Exploiting high yield potential in north-west Europe
      Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is also known as field bean or broad bean. Faba bean is especially well adapted to relatively heavy soils and cool conditions. The faba bean is therefore the grain legume of choice over much of northern Europe. Unlike cereals, the root system is not fibrous so faba bean is not well adapted to compacted soils. The yields of Ir...

      Feeding pea to dairy cows

      Using pea to replace soya in dairy rations
      More UK dairy farmers are moving away from soya as a protein source for a range of reasons including consumer concerns about the environmental and social consequences of soya production in some exporting countries. This practice note discusses the suitability of pea for the replacement of soya in dairy rations. Pea can be used for the protein enrichment of...

      Preparation and characterization of emulsion gels from whole faba bean flour

      Faba bean protein has good functionalities, but it is little used in the food industry. This study identified a challenge from unfavourable starch gelation when utilizing faba bean for producing protein-based emulsion gel foods, and developed processing methods to overcome that.

      Feeding faba bean to dairy cows

      Using faba bean to replace soya in dairy rations
      More UK dairy farmers are moving away from soya as a protein source for a range of reasons including consumer concerns about the environmental and social consequences of soya production in some exporting countries. This practice note discusses the suitability of faba bean (field bean) for the replacement of soya in dairy rations. The faba bean can be used fo...

      Biological nitrogen fixation in legumes

      Understanding the process
      In nature, biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) provides most of the reactive nitrogen that is required for protein formation and plant growth. Legumes host BNF, so understanding BNF provides a foundation for many decisions made in legume cropping.

      Inter-row cultivation in soybean

      Mechanical control of weeds
      Young soybean crops are vulnerable to weed competition, especially if spring weather is cool. Inter-row cultivation is one of the practices used to tip the balance in the competition between the crop and weed flora in favour of the soybean.

      Alternatives to soya for dairy cows

      What are the alternatives to soya for dairy cows?
      Soybean meal is considered the gold standard for supporting high milk yields in dairy cows. However, it is falling out of favour with milk processors, consumers and dairy farmers for many reasons. Environmental concerns around how imported soybean is produced, a desire to reduce the carbon footprint of milk, and pressure from milk buyers means that farmers a...

      Inoculation of soybean seed

      Inoculation for an efficient nitrogen supply
      The soybean, like all legume crops, hosts the nitrogen-fixing nodule bacteria. In soy, this is Bradyrhizobium japonicum that does not naturally occur in European soils. Careful seed or soil inoculation is required so that the developing plant root is colonised by this bacterium.

      Best Practice Manual for soybean cultivation

      The Donau Soja Best Practice Manual (BPM) is a comprehensive guide for sustainable soybean production in the Danube Region. Since 2015, Donau Soja is coordinating the further development of the BPM in different country versions and supports the development of further information materials on cultivation.

        Our videos about: all
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            Production of soybean seeds

            The use of high-quality seed is particularly important for the success of a soybean crop. In this video, the experts from Centre for Agricultural Technology Augustenberg (LTZ) explain what to look for in soybean seed production.

            Legume protein from Brandenburg

            Field trials on grain legumes have been conducted at the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research (ZALF) for many years. In this video, Moritz Reckling and Kathleen Karges give insights into their research o...

            Using grain legumes in marine fish diets

            In this video, THESGI Agricultural Cooperative of Thessaly in cooperation with NIREUS Aquaculture S.A. demonstrate a win-win market for legumes and fish producers. Taking into acc...

            Make your own tofu in the traditional Japanese way

            In this video, tofu master, Mariko Kaufmann, shows how you can make tofu - a step by step instruction.

            How to produce a farm video to enhance knowledge exchange

            This video was recorded during an online seminar about the production of low-budget audio-visual material for research and innovation projects in the field of agriculture, in September 2020. Affordable equipment for realising good quality videos are demonstrated and experiences from planning, filming and editing videos are shared.

            Protein crops for Scotland

            Robin Walker from Scotlands Rural College (SRUC) provides an overview of the latest developments and opportunities in testing protein crops as feed and food in Scotland.

            Bean weevil in faba bean

            Martin Bourke of TEAGASC in Ireland explains how to recognise Bean Weevil in early growth stages of faba beans, control timings and aligning this control to other operations which may be necessary to the crop.

            Scenarios for the protein transition in Europe

            Legumes can play a leading role in improving the resilience of European farming systems and contribute to more sustainable food systems. To explore this significant option for future protein supply, the fifth 'Protein Paradoxes' Workshop took place in a hybrid (online/offline) setting and was organised by the Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Researc...

            Growing faba beans for certified seed

            In this video, Tim O'Donovan from Seedtech describes the life cycle of growing faba beans for seed in Ireland.

            Peas in pig feed

            In this video, pig farmer Martin Hanselmann reports on his experiences in growing and feeding peas to pigs. He runs a part-time farm in Kerleweck, Germany and keeps Swabian-Hall fattening pigs on 550 fattening pens with attached piglet rearing. Marketing is done through the Schwäbisch Hall farmers' producer association. He grows a large part of the feed on h...

            Inoculating legumes

            This video explains why, when and how to inoculate grain legumes with appropriate Rhizobium bacteria.

            Painted lady in soybean production

            The thistle butterfly (Vanessa cardui) is one of the migratory butterflies that fly into Central Europe from the Mediterranean region and even North Africa every year from May to August. To do so, they cover thousands of kilometres and even cross the Alps. In some years, there can be mass occurrences in Central Europe, as a result of which soy plants ...

            Mechanical weed control in soybean

            Experts explain what must be considered in weed control when sowing your soya crop: which measures have to be taken when, which equipment to use and how, and much more. The video takes us to the field for practical tips on successful weed-management in soya.

            Demonstration of mechanical weeding machines

            Mechanical weeding in soy
            Mechanical weeding is one of the key elements of organic farming. It is particularly important in the cultivation of organic soybean.

            On-farm soybean processing

            Toasting soy for pig fattening
            The video was filmed in collaboration with the Höckner family, they run a pig breeding and fattening operation near Linz, Austria. Some years ago the Höckner family bought a soy toasting system. In this video they recount their experiences with toasting soybean and feeding the soy press cake to their pigs.

            Threshing soybean properly

            Experienced German cultivation consultants explain the details of harvesting soya in this 8-minute video. It covers the time of harvesting to the setting of the combine harvester as well as machine operation.

            Soybean in the course of a year

            The video takes us from seed to harvest through soya germination, flowering, grain filling, ripening, and maturation. Soya experts provide practical tips for growing a successful soybean crop.

            Mulch-sowing for spring crops

            Mulch sowing is a cultivation method in which the seed is sown into mulched plant residues. The aim of mulch sowing is to achieve continuous erosion protection of the soil throughout the year. This involves the use of non-turning tillage equipment that only works shallowly and protects the soil structure.

            Sowing of soybean

            Experts explain what needs to be considered when sowing soybeans, provide practical tips on machinery, sowing distances, ways to avoid weeds and much more. The seedbed preparation, seed quality, sowing date, technique, and seeding rate are discussed.

            On-farm soybean processing

            The soybean is an excellent source of protein for human consumption and for animal nutrition. However, it also has digestive inhibitors. These must be deactivated by heat treatment before they can be used. Toasting soybean is one possible method for this. In the following video we show how the processing of soybean works on Johannes Edhofer's farm. He grows ...

            Inoculation of soybean seed

            Experts describe what needs to be considered when inoculating soya seed before sowing and provide practical tips on machines, inoculation technology and application scenarios. A written article about the inoculation of soybean seed can be found here: Inoculation of soybean seed. Further, an article about biological nitrogen fixation in legumes in more ...

            Lupin cultivation - success with new varieties

            After the cultivation of white lupines was no longer possible for a long time due to the fungal disease anthracnose, hope is restored thanks to the new varieties 'Frida' and 'Sulimo'. Christine Arncken from FiBL presents the cultivation of white lupins under organic conditions and presents encouraging results from her field trials.

            Soybean cultivation for tofu

            In this video, 'Soya cultivation for tofu', Taifun-Tofu agricultural engineers explain what is particularly important when growing soybean for tofu production - from the choice of variety, to harvesting and processing.

            Processing of soybean - methods and tips

            Soybean is an excellent source of protein as food and feed. However, it has digestive inhibitors. These must be deactivated by appropriate methods before consumption or feeding. This video presents the most common processing methods and tips.

              More about food

              All animals, including humans, need dietary protein. It is a basic building block of life and an important component of a healthy diet.

              Most national dietary guidelines and recommendations in Europe provide information on the quantities and sources of protein needed for balanced diets. Comparing this with information on protein consumption indicates that protein deficiency is extremely rare in Europe. Consumption well in excess of needs is much more common than protein deficiency. Our excess protein consumption is associated with high consumption of livestock products and the related health problems. The negative consequences for the environment are very significant. Producing protein, especially animal protein, is resource intensive and so consumption is linked to resource and environmental challenges in agriculture.

              Slightly more than half of the food protein consumed in the EU is from animal sources. Many of us consume more red meat (beef and pork) than is recommended with consequences for both our health and the environment. There is now widespread recognition of the damage done by diets high in livestock products. Moving to greater reliance on plant-based foods is now a ‘mega-trend’ that is predicted to reduce the consumption of animal products by 20 % in the medium term and by about 50 % in the longer term. While most of the plant protein we consume is in traditional foods such as cereals, pulses and vegetables, there is a rapidly growing market for new food products that are especially rich in plant-sourced protein and have similar functions to meat and dairy products in the kitchen.

              Grain legumes or pulses are first-class sources of dietary protein. They are used in many foods including stews, meat and milk analogue products, bakery products, snacks and spreads. Whole pulses are used in many traditional food products, some of these are protected under the European Union’s schemes of geographic indications and traditional specialities (PDO, PGI and TSG). In addition to supplying protein, pulses in particular bring a wide range of other benefits to the diet. They make a very clear contribution to healthy eating. However, the proportion of legumes in Europeans’ diets remains small or insignificant.

              Pulses can be consumed in different ways from raw to highly refined components of novel plant-based food products, following advanced fractionation. The sky is the limit when it comes to their potential in food.

              The food industry’s demand for legume-based ingredients is growing and the time is ripe to scale up operations. We need to raise the cultural and economic value of grain legumes and investigate ways for increasing regional production to deliver better rewards for farmers. Soybeans grow well in central and south-east Europe and the cool-season grain legumes such as peas and faba beans provide local raw materials elsewhere in Europe. We also have a wide range of other pulses such as lentils, common beans and chickpeas that are essential to many traditional dishes. Despite these great benefits and opportunities, the capacity to process regional legumes for the food industry remains low in many parts of Europe, the supplies are limited, and the quality often needs improvement.

              The Legume Hub examines aspects related to food-based value chains, including processing grain legumes for human consumption, as well as the environmental and health effects of pulses.