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      The role of legume production and use in European agri food systems

      Legumes can play a crucial role in making European agri-food systems more sustainable by improving the environmental performance as well as resource-efficiency and contributing to a higher level of protein self-sufficiency. Based on considerations of current legume production and consumption in Europe, this guide illustrates effects of integrating legume in ...

      Growing soybean in north-western Europe

      Experience from Ireland
      The cultivation of soybean has increased considerably in Europe in the last decade supported by the development of cultivars adapted to high latitude and shorter or cooler growing seasons. These cultivars are now grown in countries where climatic conditions were considered unsuitable for soybean production until very recently, such as in southern England, Li...

      Guide for farms to plan small scale soya bean processing equipment

      Soya beans are rich in proteins but also contain anti-nutritive substances, which require processing prior to feeding to pigs or poultry. Designing an adequate processing system for a farm is challenging because a range of factors need to be considered together: profitability, time efforts, needs of livestock, and consumers. Various technological design sol...

      Guide for assessing the protein quality in soya feed products

      Soya beans are an excellent source of protein but they also contain anti-nutritive components, which need to be deactivated by heat prior to feeding to swine or poultry. However, high temperatures can also damage key nutrients, reducing their digestibility. Trypsin inhibitor activity (TIA), protein dispersibility index (PDI) and urease activity are useful in...

      Recommendations for using soya-based feedstuffs in pig husbandry

      If soya beans are pressed and heat treated, the products can be used in organic feed rations for pigs. Critical points in ration planning must be considered to achieve a high meat quality.

      Unprocessed soya beans low in trypsin inhibitors in organic pig fattening diets

      Soya beans are rich in protein, but they contain antinutritional components such as trypsin inhibitors, which means that thermal processing is required before feeding to pigs and poultry. The successful use of unprocessed soya bean varieties with reduced content of trypsin inhibitors enables farmers to become more independent in their feed supply. Furthermor...

      Alternatives to soya bean for fattening broilers

      By 2022 it will become compulsory under EU Regulations (EC) no 889/2008 to provide all organic livestock with feed derived from 100% organic origins. Pig and poultryfarming currently relies heavily on imported soya so finding regional alternatives to soya is important. Camelina cake, rapeseed expeller and sunflower expeller can be locally produced so their p...

      Using near-infrared tools to monitor heat damage in soya bean products

      Soya beans are an excellent source of protein but they also contain anti-nutritive components, which need to be deactivated by heat prior to feeding to swine or poultry. Instruments for near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR) equipped with specialised calibration models can reliably measure soya bean processing indicators such as trypsininhibitor activity (TIA) or ...

      Foraging of organic finishing pigs on protein-rich fodder

      The free-range area for finishing pigs is generally not optimized for its nutritional value through grazing. Introduce a diversity of potein-rich fodder, so that the finishing pigs forage as soon as weather conditions permit, over the longest possible period of the year. This is valuable for pig health and welfare and also for the nutritional quality of the ...

      Utilisation of waste heat from biogas plants for drying fine‐grained legumes

      The combustion of biogas to generate electricity generates a lot of waste heat, which is often not sufficiently used. Fine‐grained legumes, such as lucerne or clover, are important in the crop rotation on organic farms. At the same time, they are a good source of proteins, amino acids and roughage in feed. The approach here is to use the waste heat from biog...

      Recommendations for using soy-based feedstuffs for poultry production

      Benefits of soy include: Soya can be very well integrated into crop rotation and can cover up to 80 % of the N requirement by inoculating the seed with N-fixing nodule bacteria (Bradyrhizobium japonicum). Soya contains a lot of energy and protein. It is very tasty for the animals and easy to digest. The high content of linoleic acid has a positive effect on ...

      Sprouted wheat and vetch seeds as a green feed for poultry

      There is little data available for feed value of sprouts as animal feed. The addition of sprouted seeds to the ration could improve utilisation of available feedstuffs. Sprouting triggers the breakdown of antinutritional factors in pulses increasing protein in the diet and provides the benefits of a green feed.

      Actor group’s knowledge and insights into constraints and opportunities

      This report provides an overview of the knowledge management concepts in Legumes Translated and provides a compendium of assessments of the knowledge resources that the actor groups represented in the project have. Legumes Translated supports innovation in all major grain legume-supported cropping systems and related agricultural activities by linking sourc...

      Sclerotina stem rot in soybean

      More than 100 soybean pathogens have been described worldwide, and about 35 of these are considered capable of causing significant economic damage on soybean. Fungi are the most numerous and harmful, followed by bacteria and viruses. White mould (or sclerotina stem rot) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the most potentially damaging disease...

      Heat treatment and dehulling effects on feed value of faba beans

      Beans are commonly grown in rotation as a fertility-building cash crop, but they contain antinutritional factors, which limit their inclusion in monogastric rations. Processing the beans to remove antinutritional factors could increase the use and value of a product which is readily available in organic farming. Toasting and dehulling beans reduce the lev...

      Why farmers grow lupin

      Insights from a survey of German farmers
      Lupin is well adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions and produces high yields of protein. Germany is a historically important growing area for lupin but the area and production has fluctuated greatly in recent years. Insights into farmers’ perceptions and strategies reveals potential drivers for changes in lupin production. Results from a unique...

      Forage legumes for a cool climate

      This article considers the yield and quality of a range of alternative legume-based forages grown under cool wet temperate climate conditions in Scotland. Changing consumer expectations of farming is providing opportunities for more local and sustainable protein sourcing for livestock feed, especially in the dairy industry. We have demonstrated that crimso...

      The bean seed beetle in faba bean

      Bruchus rufimanus (Boheman), commonly referred to as the bruchid beetle or bean seed beetle, is an economically important pest of faba bean throughout Europe, Asia, North America and Africa. Its principal hosts are spring- and autumn-sown faba bean, (Vicia faba var. minor) although, more recently, high levels of infestation have been recorded i...

      Red clover silage

      Feeding value of red clover silage for cattle
      The nitrogen-fixing capability of red clover means that it can produce high yields of high-protein forage without nitrogen fertiliser. The feeding value of red clover silage depends on its combined effects on feed intake and diet digestibility. Traditional feed evaluation assessments indicate that red clover has some disadvantages due to its lower digestibil...

      There is a grain legume for every field

      Growing grain legume crops in northern Europe
      Almost every arable farm can grow a grain legume, even in northern Europe. This article deals with the question “are my fields suitable for farming grain legumes”. The answer in most cases is “yes”, and this article shows that there are several aspects to consider related to soil texture, pH levels and water availability when selecting the right legume for a...

      Moldovan soybean varieties testing in the condition of North Bulgaria

      Eight soybean varieties from Moldovan selection were traced in terms of productivity and its determining components in a three-year field trial. They have been compared with the Bulgarian standard variety Avigeya. The experiment was conducted in the period 2019-2021 in the condition of North Central Bulgaria at the field of Experimental station of soybean an...

      Dehulled grain legumes for food

      Split pea and red lentil are familiar examples of dehulled grain legumes. They cook faster, have slightly different flavour, and have a higher nutritional value than their whole-seed counterparts. The need for dehulling depends on the intended process and use, so both hulled and dehulled have their place in the market. For food uses, culinary quality is the ...

      Effect of soybean cropping on floral diversity

      Agriculture faces a serious challenge as species diversity in agricultural landscapes declines. Grain legumes are thought to contribute to farmland biodiversity. In a survey of the international literature we established that, with the exception of soybean, there is little information on the impact of grain legumes on floral diversity of agroecosystems. Acco...

      Cultivar selection for spring faba bean

      Faba bean grows particularly on heavier soils that hold and supply water to the plant. If the site conditions are suitable, a careful choice of cultivar (variety) lays the foundation for successful faba bean cultivation. Although the number of cultivars available to growers is relatively small, several new cultivars with novel characteristics have come onto ...

      Effects of soybean cropping on arthropods

      The decline in the diversity and biomass of arthropods, insects in particular, in agricultural landscapes poses a major challenge to agriculture. There is little evidence about the effect of introducing grain legumes into cropping systems on this group of organisms. In a review of the international literature, we found that, except for soybean, there is almo...

      Maize and runner bean intercropping

      Silage maize is grown over a large area and is closely associated with cropping systems that lack diversity with relatively high impacts on soil quality and nature. Mixed or intercropping can reduce the risk of erosion, increase crop biodiversity, and improve nitrogen utilisation.

      Nutritional value of grain legumes

      Systems to evaluate protein feeds for ruminants use solubility measurements as proxies for protein degradation in the rumen. Soluble protein (nitrogen, N) is assumed to be rapidly degraded in the rumen and so likely to be used inefficiently. This article demonstrates that this assumption is not appropriate for pea, faba bean and lupin and has led to an under...

      Faba bean, grain pea, sweet lupin and soybean for feeding cattle

      Domestic grain legumes have almost disappeared from our livestock diets in recent years. Practical experience in handling them and knowledge of their feeding effects is also lost. In addition, the feeding practices and general livestock management conditions and resulting animal performance have changed. Farmers involved in livestock production have also cha...

      Agro-economic prospects for expanding soybean production beyond its current northerly limit in Europe

      Soybean is one of the five crops that dominate global agriculture, along with maize, wheat, cotton and rice. In Europe, soybean still plays a minor role and is cultivated mainly in the South and East. Very little is known about the potential for soybean in higher latitudes with relatively cool conditions. To investigate the agronomic potential and limitation...

      Faba bean, grain pea, sweet lupin and soybean for pig feeding

      Grain legumes have long been considered valuable crops for farmers. In addition to providing a break in cereal-based crop rotations, they make an important contribution to the regenerative nitrogen (N) supply in arable farming through their ability to fix N with the help of root nodule bacteria. Pea, faba bean, sweet lupin and also European-grown soybean hav...

      Feeding extruded soybean to pigs

      A case study in Bulgaria
      Imported defatted soybean meal is the most common supplemental protein source used for feeding pigs. It is available as a commodity world-wide. Most soybean meal used in Europe is imported from South America. Partially replacing imported soybean meal with extruded full-fat soybeans in pigs’ diet could be an attractive and financially beneficial alternative i...

      Maize intercropped with climbing beans

      The EU organic regulation sets the goal of 100% organic feeding. This requires the development of new cropping systems in order to produce animal feed rich in energy and protein. Intercropping of maize and runner beans is traditionally practiced for human consumption in the region of origin of maize. In Europe, intercropping of maize with climbing beans is r...

      Valuing faba bean and pea for feed

      A large proportion of Germany’s protein feed requirement is met using imported soya, especially for pig and poultry feed. Most of the soya is imported from the USA, Argentina and Brazil and is genetically modified. Grain legumes such as faba bean and grain pea, along with rapeseed meal, have the potential to at least partially replace soybean meal for feedin...

      Edamame: Soybeans fresh from the garden

      For centuries, soy was used exclusively for direct human nutrition. Tofu, miso, tempeh, natto and many other traditional soy dishes form an elementary part of far-eastern cuisine. Another particularly healthy and tasty soy dish is edamame: green soy pods, freshly harvested and briefly cooked in salt water. Edamame is served as a snack in the pod with a co...

      Soybean growth stages and requirements

      First of all, during vegetative growth, the soybean plants form nodes and leaves for photosynthesis. During germination , the soil temperature must be at least 10°C with sufficient water availability. After the cotyledons and the first leaf are fully developed (BBCH 10, Fig. 3), the energy reserves in the grain and the photosynthesis of the cotyledons supply...

      Cold-pressed soybean for poultry

      A case study in Bulgaria
      This article describes the result of a case study of the use of cold-pressed soybean cake for feeding laying hens. Cold-pressed soybean cake is used by one of the three selected egg producers in Bulgaria. The inclusion of soybean cake up to 50% of the soybean protein in the feed of laying hens resulted in improved feeding performance. The soybean cake was pr...

      Soya, soya isoflavones and health effects

      Soya foods are very popular not only in Asia but now also in Europe and the USA – not least because of the trend towards vegan and vegetarian diets as well as for sustainability reasons to reduce meat consumption. Soya products are versatile in the kitchen and enrich a plant-based diet due to their high nutrient density and biological value of the protein. I...

      Field trials on N-fixing cover crops & green manures in Scotland

      Presentation given at the "Growing for a sustainable future: Quick fire updates, farmer case studies and panel discussion" online event as part of the SRUC/ AHDB Winter Roadshows in Scotland

      Water use and irrigation in soybean

      Water is the most common yield limiting factor for soybean production in Europe. The occurrence of dry and hot periods in central and eastern Europe has increased in recent years. Timely and efficient irrigation can increase and stabilise yields in areas where summer droughts are common. Efficient irrigation management needs to account for environmental an...

      Effectiveness of nitrogen fixation in rhizobia

      Biological nitrogen fixation in rhizobia occurs primarily in root or stem nodules and is induced by the bacteria present in legume plants. This symbiotic process has fascinated researchers for over a century, and the positive effects of legumes on soils and their food and feed value have been recognized for thousands of years. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation use...

      Irrigation of lupin

      An experiment in Greece
      White lupin (Lupinus albus) is a good source of protein for animal feed and stands out as an alternative to soybean in the local market. However, the cultivation of the crop has declined in Greece mostly due to farmers opting for more profitable crops with better yields. The warm and dry climate in Greece leads to a drought impacting on lupin cultivat...

      Disease control in faba bean

      Fungal diseases are important contributors to the relatively large yield fluctuations in faba bean cultivation in central and northern Europe. In particular, rust (caused by Uromyces viciae fabae) and chocolate spot disease (caused by Botrytis fabae) can cause significant yield reductions. Both diseases reduce the photosynthetically active crop...

      Lupins - cultivation and uses

      In Central Europe, three lupin species are grown for agricultural use as grain: yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus), white lupin (L. albus), and narrow-leaved lupin (L. angustifolius), known as blue lupin. As a native protein plant, lupins have been improved in recent years. A variety of programmes have been designed to make cultivation mor...

      Crop rotations with and without legumes: a review

      Legumes are indispensable for the supply of reactive nitrogen into organic farming systems due to their ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen. This reactive nitrogen is used by all arable crops in the organic rotation and forms the foundation of the protein supply for livestock. In conventional farming, legumes offer the potential to diversify crop rotations, ...

      Thermal treatment of faba bean for flavour improvement

      There is more to the potential food use of faba bean than meets the eye. The functional ingredients produced from the bean itself, such as flour or protein isolate and concentrate, can be used to make pasta, crackers, flakes, mayonnaise and dairy or meat analogues. Nevertheless, the use of faba bean in the food industry remains low, especially compared to so...

      Legume quality requirements for fish feed

      The dependence on fish meal and oil obtained from wild fisheries raises serious risks to the development of aquaculture. Alternative raw materials are sought to minimise this threat. For years, agricultural products such as soya in a primary role and pea, faba bean or lupin in secondary role support this effort. Increasing thei...

      Risk management of downy mildew in soybean

      Downy mildew is caused by the plant pathogen Peronospora manshurica. Downy mildew is a common fungal disease of soybean, found worldwide. It is soil and seed-borne and infection may result in yield losses of 5 to up to 10% in severe cases. So far, in Central Europe the damage caused is observed to be low. This practice note provides information on ...

      Choosing soybean cultivars

      The choice of cultivar is one of the most important decisions made in growing soybean. Choosing a suitable variety creates the conditions for high and reliable grain yield with adequate quality. Attention to special quality characteristics can attract high prices in specialised markets. Other traits can help reduce production costs. European farmers can choo...

      Impact of microfluidization on colloidal properties of insoluble pea protein fractions

      Microfluidization is a technique commonly used to disrupt and homogenize dispersions such as oil-in-water emulsions or cellular suspensions. In this study, we investigated its ability to alter the physicochemical properties of plant-derived insoluble protein aggregates such as those found in pea protein extracts. Insoluble pea protein dispersions (5% w/w, pH...

      Nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation in dairy cows consuming diets based on a range of contrasting forages

      Nine multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (initially 97 d in milk), were used in a. 3 x 3 lattice square design experiment with 4-wk periods. All cows received 4 kg/d concentrates and dietary treatments were based on silages offered ad libitum: perennial ryegrass (PRO); timothy (TIM); tall fescue (TF); red clover (RC); red clover/corn silage mixture [40/60 on ...

      The environmental role of protein crops in the new common agricultural policy

      This study provides an overview of the development and environmental effects of protein crop production in Europe. Nine policy options for supporting protein crops are presented: six inside the CAP, and three outside. We recommend an integrated policy approach combining the inclusion of protein crops into greening measures, investment in research and constra...

      Legume Science and Practice 2 conference report

      This is the conference report of the second Legumes conference organised by the AAB ‘Cropping And The Environment (CATE)’ specialist group. Delegates from a broad spectrum of disciplines were brought together to explore the role of legumes in sustainable agriculture, with an emphasis on ecosystem service. Legumes have the potential to play a substantial ro...

      Effects of mixtures of red clover and maize silages on the partitioning of dietary nitrogen between milk and urine by dairy cows

      Eight multiparous lactating Holstein–Friesian cows were used to evaluate the partitioning of dietary nitrogen (N) from diets based on mixtures of red clover and maize silages in comparison with diets based on ryegrass silage. All cows received 4 kg/day of a standard dairy concentrate with one of four forage treatments in an incomplete changeover design with ...

      Reducing concentrate supplementation in dairy cow diets while maintaining milk production with pea-wheat intercrops

      In the first of 2 experiments, 40 dairy cows were used to evaluate the milk production potential and concentrate-sparing effect of feeding dairy cows a basal diet of pea-wheat intercrop silages instead of perennial rye-grass silage (GS). Dairy cows were offered GS or 2 intercrop silages prepared from wheat and either Magnus peas (MW, a tall-straw variety) or...

      Comparison of grass and legume silages for milk production. 1. Production responses with different levels of concentrate

      Silages prepared from pure stands of ryegrass, alfalfa, white clover, and red clover over two successive year were offered to lactating dairy cows in two feeding experiments. Proportional mixtures of all cuts prepared in a yr were used to ensure that the forage treatments were representative of the crop. Additional treatments involved mixtures of grass silag...

      Forage intake, meal patterns, and milk production of lactating dairy cows fed grass silage or pea-wheat bi-crop silages

      This study investigated the feed intake, milk production, and plasma nutrient status in dairy cows fed intercropped pea-wheat (bi-crop) silages comprised of contrasting ratios of pea to wheat. Spring peas (cv. Magnus) and wheat (cv. Axona) sown at either high (75:25) or low (25:75) pea inclusion rates were harvested after 13 (Cut 1) or 15 (Cut 2) wk. Eightee...

      Milk production from silage: comparison of grass, legume and maize silages and their mixtures

      The high rates of rumen fermentation, physical breakdown and passage rates from the rumen of legume silages lead to higher intakes than for grass silages of comparable digestibility. Although total tract digestibilities for legume silages and maize silages are often lower than for grass silages, milk yields are usually higher. A further benefit of legumes an...

      Phosphorus fertilisation of faba bean

      Approaches on low, medium and high P-soils
      Experiments in Ireland have shown that phosphorus (P) supply from the soil is important for high yielding faba bean crops. These observations are supported by studies showing that crops that fix nitrogen (biological nitrogen fixation, BNF) are particularly sensitive to P deficiencies. Phosphorus deficiency reduces nodule (which fixes n...

      Feeding lucerne to dairy cows

      Lucerne is a protein-rich forage legume
      This article describes feeding lucerne. Lucerne is a protein-rich perennial forage legume that fits well into arable cropping systems. Optimising the use of lucerne on dairy farms involves balancing agronomic, nutritional and economic considerations.

      Drill-seeding of soybean

      Farmers are very familiar with the conventional seed drill for sowing cereals. This article outlines how this standard farm equipment can be also successfully used in soybean production.

      Winter pea in south-east Europe

      Winter pea (Pisum sativum ssp. arvense L.) is widely grown in Bulgaria. Bulgarian scientists and farmers have accumulated cultivars and knowledge for both forms of field peas, winter and spring pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum L.). There is renewed interest in pea as farmers and local producers aim to apply circular economy in agri...

      Feeding faba bean to poultry in practice

      Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), also called field bean, is rich in protein and energy. In particular, faba bean complements cereal well in the feed ration due to the high content of lysine. Faba bean can replace or supplement soya and can be used without further treatment. The crop can be sold to compound feed producers. But a better profit ma...

      Harvesting soybean

      High soybean yields and quality require the harmony of all production factors. Timely and efficient soybean harvest is one of the key challenges. Inappropriate harvesting can lead to harvest losses of up to 30%. The main factors that impact harvest losses are pre-harvest activities (seedbed preparation, crop canopy), harvest...

      Harvesting and storing lucerne

      Due to lucerne’s high protein content and the structure of its leaves, attention to detail at harvest is required for best results. This article sets out how yield and nutritional losses are minimised when lucerne is harvested and ensiled for forage.

      Mites in soybean production

      Pests are generally not a problem in European soybean crops. Spider mites account for a large proportion of what pest damage there is. The risk of damage is high during dry and hot conditions in summer. Several mite species can damage soybean plants, but two are more harmful than others: the spider mite (Tetranychus atlanticus) and the two-spotted sp...

      Feeding pea to poultry

      Pea is rich in protein and energy. It complements cereals perfectly for feeding poultry due to the high lysine content. White-flowering, lighthulled pea can be included up to 30% in poultry feed. Growers of field pea can sell their crops to compound feed producers. However, trading pea is not always straightforward and on-farm or local use generally increas...

      Feeding quality of faba bean for poultry

      This practice note provides an overview of the components and feed value of faba bean. Faba bean (Vicia faba L.), also called field bean, is rich in protein and energy. The high content of lysine means faba bean complements cereals in feed. Faba bean can replace or supplement soy. The feed value of faba bean for poultry is determined by the metabolisa...

      Flexible cutterbars

      Technology and market overview
      This Taifun Soy Info gives an overview over flexible cutterbars - flexible cutting technology has been tried and tested for years and is fully developed. There is no doubt that the investment pays off quickly for medium and large soybean areas. This is particularly true in organic farming, where the soy price is up to three times higher than for conventional...

      Bugs in soybeans

      In this Taifun Soy Info, Taifun Tofu reports about their invesigations on bug species, to what extent yield relevant damage is to be expected and how insects are dealt with in the large growing regions. At present, despite regional significant infestation, bugs do not cause serious damage in soybeans in Germany. Studies on the actual damage caused are m...

      Intercropping of grain pea with cereals

      Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is a valuable crop species containing around 20% crude protein in the seed. Cultivated as a pure crop, pea is prone to lodging and susceptible to biotic and abiotic stress. This is especially the case for the taller cultivars often used for forage. This leads to diminished crop performance and inf...

      Faba bean, grain pea, sweet lupin and soybean in poultry feeds

      Grain legumes have long been considered valuable crops in agriculture. In addition to providing a break in cereal-based crop rotations, they make an important contribution to the regenerative N supply in arable farming through their ability to fix nitrogen with the help of nodule bacteria. Pea, faba bean, sweet lupin and also soybean from domestic cultivatio...

      Soybean processing systems

      Soybeans contain anti-nutritive substances that need to be processed before the beans can be fed to livestock. The application of relevant and compact processing technology for farms or for small enterprises requires special knowledge, and practical experience is not widespread. The factsheet presents the most common technologies available or used in Central...

      Growing spring-sown pea in south-east Europe

      Favorable climatic conditions and suitable soils support the cultivation of grain pea for livestock feed in south-east Europe. Grain pea (Pisum sativum ssp. sativum L.) is very plastic. This means it adjusts to conditions while growing. It is able to enrich the soil with nitrogen, which makes the crop attractive to farmers. Pea provides a valuable p...

      Growing lucerne in cool climates

      This note supports strategies for effective lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) production in cool regions. While it is particularly based on experience gained in environments normally regarded as marginal for lucerne production, it is relevant to all lucerne-growing situations. The aim is maximisation of crop yield and forage quality.

      Southern green shield bug in soybean

      Shield bugs (species of the superfamily Pentatomoidea) are important insect pests in soybean production worldwide. They are also known as stink bugs because they have glands that excrete a strong odour. Two bugs have become more common in recent years in Europe: the southern green shield bug (Nezara viridula) and the...

      Lucerne in north-western Europe

      Lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) can be fed to dairy, beef cattle and sheep as part of the protein forage component of their ration. Based on Scottish research, this note provides guidance on identifying site and climate combinations where the production of lucerne can be viable in north-western Europe. The experience f...

      The painted lady in soybean production

      Soybean pest scouting
      The painted lady (Vanessa cardui L.) is a pest of soybean in Serbia and many countries in south-eastern Europe (Croatia, Bosnia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria). It occurs also in central, western and northern Europe (Austria, France, Germany). This pest appears occasionally, typically once in four to five years, when it can be of economic importance. It ...

      Sampling and measurement protocols for field experiments assessing the performance of legume-supported cropping systems

      This report sets out the protocols for field measurements which were used throughout the Legume Futures research project. In some cases, more than one method is described. This is because the best method to use may be defined by the site characteristics, and also by the availability of staff, instrumentation and financial resources. This guide does not seek ...

      Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios

      This report is part of the socio-economic research in the Legume Futures project which aimed to assess the economic effect of including legumes in farming systems both in relation to the internal (economic) effects for the farmer and the external effects, especially on the environment. The objective of the research reported is to show what impact various po...

      GHG mitigation costs through legume based agriculture

      The aim of the research reported here was to assess regional greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction potential due to changing rotations at farm-scale. Rotation data generated for the research reported In Legume Futures report 4.2 from Task 4.2 were used, complemented with nitrous-oxide (N2O) emissions calculations. This research assessed the GHG abatement...

      Social cost-benefit analysis of legumes in cropping-systems

      This report is part of the socio-economic research in Legume Futures which aimed to assess the economic effect of including legumes in farming systems both in relation to the internal (economic) effects for the farmer and the external effects, especially on the environment. It builds on Legume Futures Report 4.5 (Impacts of legume-related policy scenarios). ...

      Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe

      General project report
      Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe (Legume Futures) was an international research project funded from the European Union’s Seventh Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement number 245216. The Legume Futures research consortium comprises 20 partner organisations in 13 countries.
      This general repo...

      Evaluation of legume-supported agriculture and policies at farm level

      Despite their environmental benefits the cultivation of legumes in Europe declined and is now less than 2% of the arable land in the EU. The reasons are on the one hand the high import of cheap soya for animal feeding and on the other hand the low profitability of legumes compared to other crops such as rape seed and wheat1. Reasons of the low profitability ...

      Generation and evaluation of legume-supported crop rotations in five case study regions across Europe

      This report is concerned with the socio-economic aspects of legume cultivation. One of the key instruments of modern cropping system design is the development of agronomically and economically highly efficient and environmental sound crop rotations. In our first project meetings we agreed to restrict the project works to conventional farming in order to limi...

      Agronomic case studies in Legume Futures

      Legume Futures, "Legume-supported crop rotations for Europe", is an international research project funded under the European FP7 programme. It has 20 partners in 13 countries. The project aims to develop and assess legume-supported cropping systems that improve the economic and environmental performance of farming in Europe.
      The project aims to make ...

      Novel feed and non-food uses of legumes

      Legumes are, compared with cereals, rich in a range of secondary plant compounds. Legumes have evolved mechanisms to produce and concentrate these compounds to protect against pest and disease attack. The bioactivity of these compounds opens up non-food opportunities which are specific to legumes. This report also looks at non-traditional feed uses, such ...

      Agronomic analysis of cropping strategies

      Legume crops have a number of environmental effects in rotation, but farmers and agronomists need assistance with understanding the possibilities for incorporating them into arable and forage rotations and assessing the financial risks and benefits of doing so. This report focuses on the evaluation of the agronomy of legume-based crop rotations and the feasi...

      Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) by legume crops in Europe

      The amount of N fixed by forage legumes and legume-grass systems was predicted by a combination of outputs from the CAPRI model and improved, country-specific N fixation coefficients. For grain legumes, the higher quality of available data made it possible to construct a detailed model based on N partitioning. Both approaches predicted quantities of N fixe...

      The market of grain legumes in the EU

      This report presents a focus on the market analysis of legumes in the EU. In this report, current and historical data obtained from different statistical databases are used for a basic quantitative description of EU‐legume markets. Indicators used include cultivated areas, yields, production volumes, domestic consumption, imports and exports. Expert knowledg...

      The market of grain legumes in Spain

      Results of the EU-project LegValue
      Spain is one of the most important EU-countries producing and consuming legumes. Both grain legumes and fodder legumes are well represented, with Spain being the first producer of fodder legumes in the EU. Legumes can fix nitrogen from the air thanks to their rhizobia. In addition, they serve to loosen up crop rotation, which is an advantage from a phytosani...

      The market of legumes in Italy

      First results of the EU-project LegValue
      Italy is one of the biggest producer of legumes in Europe due to its highest production of soya beans. Even though soya bean is worldwide classified as oil crop, botanically it belongs to legume species. Beside soya, fresh beans, faba beans and fresh peas are the main produced grain legumes in Italy. Italy is the leader in production of fodder legumes in Eu...

      The market of grain legumes in the UK

      First results of the EU-project LegValue
      Legumes play an important role in animal and human nutrition. Depending on the crops, some of them are mainly used for feed or food. In addition, their cultivation has many benefits in crop rotation and preserves biodiversity. However, they remain as niche in comparison to cereals. In the UK some specific aspects about legume production and marketing have to...

      The market of grain legumes in Germany

      First results of the EU-project LegValue
      The production of domestic legumes can constitute a more sustainable protein source in feeding troughs and food plates in European countries. However, it remains a challenge to realize legumes’ potential in research and practice. In this work, Germany serves as an example to describe one of the major legume markets in Europe. A mixed methodological approach ...

      Unit values in international trade as price indicators of legumes in the EU

      Unit values might become an interesting price indicator to better valorise EU produced legumes. To ensure a sustainable use of unit values as price indicators, the choice of the indicator (EUV or IUV) is decisive. The higher the transaction volume in a specific period, the more stable are the corresponding unit values over longer time periods. Therefore, the...

      Correlation between prices of grain legumes and prices of feed, fertilisers and meat

      The prices of the three groups of variables studied can be used as indicators in the pricing of legumes. It should be noted that the prices of animal feed and meat are better suited to this than the prices of mineral fertilisers. Since the correlation analysis does not allow a statement on causality, open questions remain for an in-depth time series analysis...

      Prospective cultivation area of field peas used in animal meat substitutes in the EU

      Meat alternatives from leguminous raw materials are expected to play an increasing role in human nutrition. Additional global cultivation areas and additional general cultivation potential for peas as raw material for meat substitutes are projected to increase. The aim of the present study is to estimate the prospective area of peas for pea-based meat altern...

      Cultivation of faba beans for regional protein supply: a case study on the association “Rheinische Ackerbohne e.V.” in Germany

      Faba beans have been an important component in human and animal nutrition in many parts of the world for long periods of time. Soybean imports from overseas have been displacing domestic protein crops in Europe since the 1950s. Although the cultivation of faba beans entails different eco-system services, they are rarely cultivated due to their low market per...

      Report on price setting mechanism in legume markets in the EU

      This report presents a focus on the market analysis of legumes in the EU. In this report, current and historical data obtained from different statistical databases are used for a basic quantitative description of EU‐legume markets. Indicators used include cultivated areas, yields, production volumes, domestic consumption, imports and exports. Expert knowledg...

      Increase of legume production as an alternative protein source for animal feed in a livestock-intensive region

      Protein is of vital importance for the nutrition of animals and humans. A growing world population is dependent on the efficient supply of proteins. It is also dependent on sustainable production of proteins since environmental impacts associated with animal-based protein provision are widely perceived as surpassing ecological boundaries in the long run. Con...

      Effects of legume cropping on farming and food systems

      The analyses show that legumes are not a silver bullet, but a key component for a wider shift in agricultural production and consumption that reduce environmental impacts. They reduce environmental impacts of crop and animal production, but to achieve high reductions, further optimisations of livestock systems with respect to environmental impacts are requir...

      Environmental implications for legume cropping

      The loss of nutrients from agricultural systems is recognised as a major environmental problem, contributing to air pollution and nutrient enrichment in rivers and oceans. The use of legumes within agriculture provides an opportunity to reduce some of these impacts in ways which maintain or enhance productivity. Nitrous oxide emissions are particularly impor...

      Outlook for knowledge and technology for legume-supported cropping systems

      Based partly on the results of intensive stakeholder engagement activities within the Legume Futures project and on review of the literature, this report sets out thoughts from the Legume Futures consortium on the challenges of increasing the production of legume crops in Europe and the potential approaches to research and development that might be taken. ...

      Developing legume cropping: looking forward

      Europe is self-sufficient in most agricultural commodities that it can produce. It is even a net exporter of cereals. This remarkable productivity can be attributed to specialization in high yielding cereals and oilseeds supported by synthetic nitrogen fertilizer and large imports of soy from North and South America. However, this productivity comes at a cos...

      Optimizing legume cropping: the policy questions

      The cultivation of legumes is low in Europe. Public policy incentives and/or regulations have a role to play in changing this. This chapter examines six such policies. The CAPRI (Common Agricultural Policy Regional Impact) model, a partial equilibrium model for the agricultural sector, is used to simulate the effects of these policies and compare them to wha...

      Introducing legumes into European cropping systems: farm-level economic effects

      Legume cultivation in Europe has declined in recent decades due to decreased farm-level economic competitiveness compared with cereal and oil crop production. The increase in soybean prices in recent years and the public benefits expected from diversified production systems are reasons to reconsider legumes in Europe. Farm-level economic assessments, based o...

      Mixtures of legumes for forage production

      In Europe, legumes are mostly grown as single species or in mixtures with cereals or grasses. As an alternative cropping strategy, mixtures of legumes for forage have been developed in Serbia. This novel approach can be applied in many other temperate regions of Europe. This chapter provides an overview of these cropping systems, their use and their developm...

      Lucerne (Alfalfa) in European cropping systems

      Chapter 11 from 'Legumes in Cropping Systems' reviews knowledge on the agronomy, genetics, feeding value and harvesting methods used for lucerne (alfalfa; Medicago sativa), which is the temper